Diabetes mellitus or DM is a disease affecting multi-organ systems due to the abnormal insulin production, improper insulin usage or even both. It is a very serious health problem throughout the world effecting thousands of people. A survey conducted in United States showed that almost 6.2% of the population suffers from this disease. It is a matter of great issue that almost one -third of the population is unaware of the disease.
Diabetes is actually the fifth leading cause of deaths in the country of United States. And the real incidence is expected to have a steady increase in the coming years. Diabetes has a very important role in leading to heart disease, adult blindness, stroke, non traumatic amputation of lower limb etc. it is found that diabetic people do have a risk of almost two fold to develop coronary artery disease and that too with more than 65% suffering from high blood pressure.
Diabetes – a short review
Diabetes mellitus are of mainly three types, they include type 1 diabetes mellitus, type ii diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and also secondary diabetes. Gestational diabetes as its name refers to deals with the diabetic episode during pregnancy or during the gestational period. It will subside once after delivery. Secondary diabetes is another form of diabetes where diabetes will occur secondary to other diseases, for instance chronic hypertension.
Type I diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes
It is known as juvenile diabetes since it is more common among the juveniles or young people below 30 years of age. It is insulin dependent diabetes with a peak onset during the age group of 11 to 13. Type I diabetes is caused due to the progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells that occurs by the auto immune mechanism. Clinical symptoms include increased frequency in urination or polyuria, excessive thirst or polydipsia, increased hunger or polyphagia, weight loss, fatigue etc. are seen. Ketoacidosis is a very serious complication seen in children due to diabetes and is often life threatening and may lead to metabolic acidosis.
Type II diabetes mellitus
Over 90% of diabetes mellitus is type ii diabetes. here the pancreas continues to produce insulin, but this amount of insulin is either poorly used up by tissues or is either inadequate for bodily needs. There are mainly three abnormalities or factors leading to type ii diabetes mellitus. One of them is insulin resistance, where insulin receptors are either minimal in number or will remain unresponsive. Another factor is the poor ability of pancreas to produce insulin. The final factor comes with inappropriate glucose production by the liver.
Risks related to diabetes
When we analyze the analyze risk group for developing diabetes mellitus, a condition that requires primary importance is impaired glucose tolerance or IGT. It is a disease condition caused by the mild alteration of beta cell function. Here the blood glucose level is usually high but not to a level to be called as a case of diabetes. But most people with impaired tolerance for glucose have a high risk for developing type ii diabetes within the next 10 years.
Another important risk related to diabetes is insulin resistance syndrome, also known by the name syndrome x, it is in fact a cluster of abnormalities which will act in a synergistic manner so a stop increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is usually characterized by increase insulin levels, high amount of triglycerides, hypotension.
Once identified, then complete cure of the disease is not so easy though proper measures can help you to control diabetes in a very effective way. Though there are many environmental as well as genetic factors involved in causing diabetes, exercises. Balanced diet, adequate rest and sleep and a stress less life could help you to keep away from diabetes or to stop diabetes.
There are a lot of management measures for diabetes control. It chiefly includes nutritional therapy, exercise therapy, oral anti-glycemic agents, insulin treatment etc. therefore a collaborative management is usually preferred for treating diabetes mellitus. Nutritional therapy is one of the main management for diabetes mellitus.
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